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Artemisinin derivative, Artemether, isolated from the Artemisia annua (Compositae), is an effective antimalarial drug having a special sesquiterpene lactone with a peroxy group. It is activated inside malaria parasites by intraparasitic heme iron, which catalyzes cleavage of the endoperoxide. Owing to its unique structure and mechanism of action, it possesses excellent antimalarial activity with low toxicity. However, WHO reformed the malaria treatment policy in February 2004, proposing to stop the use of single antimalarial drugs since long-term application of these agents including artemisinin could lead to antimalarial resistance.