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Background: Increasing evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in patients with MDR（multiple drug resistance）.However, the alterations in gut microbiota in Chinese PVS（persistent vegetative state）patients with MDR remain undefined.
Objectives: This case-control study was conducted to explore fecal microbiota compositions in Chinese PVS patients with MDR.
Methods: Microbiota communities in the feces of 20 patients and 10 healthy attendants were investigated using high-throughput Illumina Miseq sequencing targeting theV3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The relationships between fecal microbiota and PVS patients with MDR clinical characteristics were analyzed.
Results: The structure and richness of the fecal microbiota differed between PVS patients with MDR, PVS patients, and healthy controls. In comparison to PVS patients and healthy controls, the gut microbiota of PVS patients with MDR had: (a)a higher abundance of Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Porphyromonadaceae, Barnesiella, and Alistipes; (b) a lower abundance of beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria such as the Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, Faecalibacterium_prausnitzii and Fusicatenibacter_saccharivorans; and (c) a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio.
Conclusions: Overall, gut microbiota dysbiosis occurred in PVS patients with MDR. A well-controlled involved population was beneficial for the identification of microbiota associated with diseases. Elaborating these differences in the fecal microbiome will provide a foundation to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis of PVS patients with MDR and support the potentially therapeutic options modifying the gut microbiota.