Efficiency Replacement of Mineral Fertilization by Biofertilization and Foliar Spraying on Yield, Its Attributes and Seed Quality of Sesame

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Nabil Mohamed Mahrous, Sayed Ahmed Safina, Hatem Hussien Abo Taleb, Sayed Mohamed El-Sayed El-Behlak

Abstract

Modern intensive agricultural practices face numerous challenges that pose major threats to global food security. In order to address the nutritional requirements of the ever-increasing world population, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are applied on large scale to increase crop production. Nowadays, there is a call for the reduction of the environmental pollution resulted from over application of chemical fertilizers and fertilizers cost. Therefore, study has been done to investigate the possibility and efficiency of using partial NPK chemical fertilizers:SF1; 100% of the recommended NPK fertilizers (142.9kg N, 71.4kg P2O5 and 119.1kg K2Oha-1), SF2: 75% of the recommended NPK fertilizers and SF3: 50% of the recommended NPK fertilizers by foliar application (NPK fertilizer 100% water soluble 19:19:19 in three doses; FF1:  0 kg as foliar application, FF2: 3.57 kg as foliar application and FF3:  7.14 kgha-1 as foliar application) and different types of bio fertilizers (Uninoc.; 0 Bacterial strain and Inoc.; Mix Bio ex. Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cerculans) for improving the characteristics of sesame yield and oil yield, also contributing to decrease environmental pollution. Two field experiments were carried out during the two successive summer growing seasons of 2016 and 2017 at the Agricultural Experimental and Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Experimental design was split-split plot arrangements in randomized complete block design, repeated three times. The results could be summarized as follows: The recommended NPK fertilizers gave the maximum value for plant height (172 and 175 cm), number of capsule plant-1 (186 and 188), 1000-seeds weight (4.69 and 4.79 g), seed yield plant-1 (140 and 145 g), seed yield ha-1 (2.729 and 2.848 ton), oil % (46.95 and 47.48) and protein % (21.0 and 21.2) in both seasons, respectively. The maximum values of plant height (162 and 167 cm), number of capsule plant-1(177 and 179), 1000-seeds weight (4.68 and 4.61 g), seed yield plant-1(134 and 140 g), seed yield ha-1(2.586 and 2.710 ton), oil % (47.10 and 47.48) and protein % (20.7 and 20.3) were produced by the inoculation by bacterial strains in both seasons, respectively. The study showed that all interactions of the first order have significant effects on all studied traits during the two seasons of study. The highest values for plant height (185 and 187 cm), number of capsule plant-1(194 and 195), 1000-seeds weight (5.73 and 5.25 g), seed yield plant-1(145 and 151 g), seed yield ha-1(3.139 and 3.295 ton), oil % (48.11 and 48.03) and protein % (22.7) in both seasons, respectively resulted from combination of applied 100% of the recommended NPK fertilizers with inoculated by bacterial strains and applied 7.14 kg NPK ha-1 as foliar applicationin both seasons, respectively. the treatment of 75% of the recommended NPK fertilizers with 7.14 kg NPK ha-1 as foliar application and bacterial inoculation led to a significant increase than the recommended rate of 100 % NPK in the soil application only for seed yield ha-1 by 17.8 and 25.2 % in both seasons, respectively, as well as, There are no significant differences between 75% and 50% of the recommended NPK soil fertilizers.Therefore, the same seed yield per hectare can be obtained by saving 50% of the amount of NPK soil fertilizer.The content of sesame seeds from oil and protein increased significantly, estimated in oil (3.1 and 0.1%) and protein (7.7 and 3.1 %), when 50% of the recommended NPK soil fertilizers with 7.14 kg NPK ha-1 as foliar application and bacterial inoculation compared by 100% of the recommended NPK soil fertilizers only during the two seasons, respectively.

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