A Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases and the Risk Factors Among Hypertensive Patients, Saudi Arabia

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Madiha Mahmoud, Amna Metwaly, Mohamed Ghoniem, Fahaad Alenazi, Halima Alagib, Aseenat Bani Mfrrij, Neama Youssef, Hemat El-Horany, Mohd Saeed

Abstract

Background: Hypertension affects over 30% of the Saudi population, showing a significant burden of disease and inadequate control of modifiable risk factors.  Hypertension is a significant risk factor for stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).  There are no enough studies on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Ha’il, Saudi Arabia.  


Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CVD and associated risk factors among the hypertensive population. 


Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolled 297 hypertensive Saudis, registered for Ha’il University Medical Polyclinics from October 2020 to March 2021.  Data was collected from patients about sociodemographic, hypertension, family history of heart disease, in addition to the laboratory investigations, ECG± Echocardiography reports.  


Results: Hypertensive patients with cardiovascular complications were 109 patients (36.7%), of which 66% had LVH, 19.3% (AF), 10% (IHD), and 4.6% (HF). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for CVD were age, hypertension duration, elevated systolic blood pressure, obesity, family history of cardiac diseases, elevated triglycerides and low HDL levels.  


Conclusion: To reduce the prevalence of CVDs, national programs concentrating on modifiable risk factors (obesity, uncontrolled hypertension, and dyslipidemia) for the Ha'il population have to be implemented.

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