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The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has led to an increase in the number of chronic complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). In addition to high prevalence, DN is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in relation to cardiovascular disease. It is well known that genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of DN; in genetically susceptible people, it can develop after exposure to environmental factors. DN is probably a complex, polygenic disease. To identify genes associated with DN, two main strategies were used: analysis of candidate genes and later scanning throughout the genome. Much effort has been made to identify these major genes, but the results are still incompatible with various genes associated with little effect in specific populations.