Determinants of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Mothers on Infant Birth Weight in Makassar

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Asriana Abdullah, Saifuddin Sirajuddin, AndiZulkifli Abdullah, Nurhaedar Jafar, RatuAyuDewi Sartika, Nasrun Julyarman

Abstract

Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical inflammatory disorder of the small intestine characterized by changes in gut morphology, decreased absorption capacity, and impaired bowel function. Environmental enteric dysfunction determinants influence poor pregnancy outcomes. The study design used a prospective cohort. The total sample (n=88) was divided into two groups, namely the exposed group (n=44) and the unexposed group (n=44). This research was conducted from May to December 2021. Pregnant women's feces samples and LILA measurements were collected for five months from June to October 2021 at the Kartini Children's Mother Hospital Makassar to obtain research samples. Then the stool sample was tested at the Hospital. Hasanuddin University Makassar. The purposive sampling technique did sampling. Data were collected from two sources, namely secondary sources and primary sources. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis, Relative Risk, and Chi-Square tests.. The results of the univariate analysis were based on the distribution of respondents based on general characteristics and nutritional status of the mother, the mean age of pregnant women in the exposed group was older than the average age of the mother in the unexposed group. Based on AAT levels, it can be seen that the mean AAT in the exposed group was higher than in the unexposed group, but the maximum level was higher in the unexposed group. Regarding infant birth weight, the mean weight of babies born to mothers in the exposed group was lower than that of babies born to mothers in the unexposed group. Bivariate analysis was carried out as an assessment to see the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. The impact of environmental enteric dysfunction determinants based on the nutritional status on infant birth weight shows that the difference between the nutritional status of mothers with SEZ and the nutritional status of normal mothers in giving birth to LBW babies is 22.8%. The statistical tests showed that the nutritional status assessed by LILA significantly affected the baby's birth weight (p<0.05). The result of the calculation of the RR is 6.00, which means that pregnant women with LILA <23.5 cm have a 6-fold risk of giving birth to LBW babies.

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