Occurrence of Obstetric Complications in Pregnancy and Childbirth - Retrospective Analysis

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Santhoshkumari, Hepsibah Sharmil S


Background: Obstetric complications are serious obstetric crisis which leads to increased mortality and morbidity. It is critical to detect these issues before they become serious in order to arrange suitable responses.

Objectives: The objective was to evaluate occurence and risk factors of complications during pregnancy, labour and delivery at a teaching hospital in Puducherry, India.

Methods: A single center retrospective analysis of women admitted for childbirth was conducted. The information was gathered from the mothers’ concurrent medical records and case sheets from January 2018 to February 2021.The occurrence of obstetric problems was researched and assessed. Logistic regression was utilized to sort out potential risk factors of reported obstetric complications. Subgroup analysis centering on mode of delivery was accomplished.

Results: A total of 4998 pregnant women were enrolled and 3106 (62.2%) experienced atleast any one complication during their pregnancy, labour and delivery. The subgroup analysis revealed that incidence of obstetric complications was more in vaginal deliveries than caesarean sections. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess potential risk variables. Regression analysis revealed that multiparity (OR 1.399, 95% CI 1.120-1.531, P = 0.001), Obesity (Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) (OR 1.724, 95% CI 1.235-2.566, P = 0.002), and vaginal deliveries (OR 1.402, 95% CI 1.143-1.723, P = 0.001) were the risk factors of intranatal complications.  The risk of antenatal complications increased with age of the mother and gestational age. Increased gestational age causes intranatal difficulties, and the level of haemoglobin interacts with the labouring process, causing issues.

Conclusion: Risk factors of obstetric complications varied slightly according to the mode of delivery. The major risk factors that lead to complications are preeclampsia and macrosomia.

Implications for Nursing Practice: The research findings suggested that nurse-midwives should be contented to identify the complications earlier and take necessary action immediately. Knowledge and skills in managing the obstetric complications should be enriched by various skill drills for the midwives.

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